Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Nettastomatidae
Etymology: Venefica: Latin, vena = vein + Latin, fica, facere = to make (Ref. 45335). More on author: Garman.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 100 - 500 m (Ref. 51600). Subtropical; 52°N - 11°N, 138°E - 86°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Western Pacific: off northern Honshu and the Sea of Okhotsk off Hokkaido (Japan). Eastern Pacific: off San Diego, California, USA and Central America.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00079 (0.00029 - 0.00217), b=3.02 (2.79 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .