Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Nettastomatidae
Etymology: Venefica: Latin, vena = vein + Latin, fica, facere = to make (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 385 - 2200 m (Ref. 54804). Deep-water
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4454)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Greyish black in color, darker on snout, throat and belly (Ref. 6591).
Worldwide in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters (Ref. 33390).
Inhabits the lower continental slope (Ref. 4454).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, D.G., 1990. Nettastomatidae. p. 172-175. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4454)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00079 (0.00029 - 0.00216), b=3.02 (2.79 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .