Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Variola: Latin, variolus = pustule, pock (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 200 m (Ref. 5222), usually 12 - 90 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 29°N - 26°S, 38°E - 17°W (Ref. 5222)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 67 - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Indo-Pacific: east coast of Africa (Zanzibar and Mafia Island, Tanzania) to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland, Australia.
A generally uncommon species that inhabits seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles inshore on algae and soft coral reefs, usually swimming well above the substrate, looking much like a basslet (Ref. 48635). Found in small groups (Ref. 11888). Feeds on fishes. Flesh tastes excellent. Solitary (Ref 90102).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00000 (0.00000 - 0.00000), b=0.00000 (0.00000 - 0.00000), based on (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .