Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Urolophidae
Etymology: Trygonoptera: Greek, trygon = a sting ray + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Müller, Henle.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 135 m (Ref. 9863), usually ? - 60 m (Ref. 9863). Temperate; 26°S - 38°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9863)
Western Pacific: southern Queensland to New South Wales.
Found in sandy beaches and reefs but also well offshore. May venture well upstream in estuaries (Ref. 6871). Feeds on worms, crustaceans, bony fishes, and other stingarees (Ref. 12951).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.59 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .