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Trachurus trachurus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic horse mackerel
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Image of Trachurus trachurus (Atlantic horse mackerel)
Trachurus trachurus
Picture by JJPhoto

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 54256), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54256).   Subtropical; 67°N - 19°S, 26°W - 41°E (Ref. 54256)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 23.9, range 21 - 30 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3197); common length : 22.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 30-36; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 24 - 32. Bluish green, grey or black above, silvery white below; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197). Lateral scales tall and keeled. Gill cover with a distinct black spot. First dorsal fin tall (Ref. 35388).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, round the coast to Maputo.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults form large schools in coastal areas with sandy substrate. They feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Females lay 140,000 eggs, which hatch into 5mm long larvae (Ref. 35388). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Divided into two stocks: West stock and North Sea stock. West stock spawns in a belt from the Biscay to Ireland in early spring, migrates north and eastwards to southern Norway and northern North Sea. North Sea stock spawns in the southern North Sea in summer, migrates to central North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
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Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00752 - 0.00963), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.16; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=70,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.