Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
The genus Trachinocephalus is a synonym of Synodus after Chaiyapo (2013, IPFC9, in press).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 400 m (Ref. 9710), usually 3 - 90 m (Ref. 4472). Tropical; 40°N - 40°S, 76°W - 154°W
Worldwide in tropical and warm temperate waters with the exception of the eastern Pacific and the northeast Atlantic north of Cape Blanc, Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 36558)
soft rays: 13 - 18. Snout very short; mouth very oblique; body with alternating narrow dark-edged pale blue and yellow stripes; oblique black spot at the upper end of the gill opening (Ref. 2334). Eye far forward (Ref. 26938).
Found near shore above 40 m over sandy bottoms of deep outer reef slopes (Ref. 11230). Reported to be common in estuaries (Ref. 11228, 48635). Benthic at 3-388 m (Ref. 58302). Rest on or more often burrow into substrate, leaving eyes exposed (Ref. 4472, 48635). When disturbed, it may swim a short distance but quickly buries itself again (Ref. 48635). Feed on fishes (Ref. 5213) and small crustaceans (Ref. 36558).
Sulak, K.J., 1990. Synodontidae. p. 365-370. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4472)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.9 - 29, mean 27.3 (based on 4584 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00179 - 0.00465), b=3.38 (3.24 - 3.52), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=1.6; tm=2; tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.71, 2 SD range = 0.57 - 0.88, log(r) = -0.34, SD log(r) = 0.11, Based on: 2 K, 1 tgen, 3 tmax, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .