Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
The genus Trachinocephalus is a synonym of Synodus after Chaiyapo (2013, IPFC9, in press).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 400 m (Ref. 9710), usually 3 - 90 m (Ref. 4472). Tropical; 40°N - 40°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 36558)
soft rays: 13 - 18. Snout very short; mouth very oblique; body with alternating narrow dark-edged pale blue and yellow stripes; oblique black spot at the upper end of the gill opening (Ref. 2334). Eye far forward (Ref. 26938).
Worldwide in tropical and warm temperate waters with the exception of the eastern Pacific and the northeast Atlantic north of Cape Blanc, Africa.
Found near shore above 40 m over sandy bottoms of deep outer reef slopes (Ref. 11230). Reported to be common in estuaries (Ref. 11228, 48635). Benthic at 3-388 m (Ref. 58302). Rest on or more often burrow into substrate, leaving eyes exposed (Ref. 4472, 48635). When disturbed, it may swim a short distance but quickly buries itself again (Ref. 48635). Feed on fishes (Ref. 5213) and small crustaceans (Ref. 36558).
Sulak, K.J., 1990. Synodontidae. p. 365-370. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4472)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00183 - 0.00455), b=3.39 (3.26 - 3.52), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=1.6; tm=2; tmax=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .