Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Torpedinidae
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; 12°N - , 43°E - (Ref. 114953)
Western Indian Ocean: known from the type locality, harbor of Perim, at Mocca (Mocho), Red Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83892); 29.1 cm TL (female)
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Biology little known. Probably reaches ca. 40 cm TL; males mature before 23 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
de Carvalho, M.R., M.F.W. Stehmann and L.G. Manilo, 2002. Torpedo adenensis, a new species of electric ray from the Gulf of Aden, with comments on nominal species of Torpedo from the western Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and adjacent areas (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes: Torpedinidae). Am. Mus. Novit. 3369:1-34. (Ref. 83892)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00743 - 0.03383), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .