Torpedo marmorata  Risso, 1810

Marbled electric ray
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Torpedo marmorata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Torpedo marmorata (Marbled electric ray)
Torpedo marmorata
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Risso.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 370 m (Ref. 4430).   Subtropical; ? - 20°C (Ref. 10011); 60°N - 35°S, 18°W - 36°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 39 - 49 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 35388)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 0; Vertebrae: 104 - 108. Disc-width around the same as its length, length and width 1,50 to 1,70 times in total length; dorsal fins more or less rounded, its base 1,50 times in its height (Ref. 39215).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: northern UK (less common in southern North Sea and Kattegat) to Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Also in the Mediterranean Sea.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in seagrass areas, rocky reefs, and adjacent soft bottoms (Ref. 12951). Avoids temperatures above 20°C (Ref. 10011). Nocturnal, usually burying itself during the day with only the eyes and spiracle jutting out (Ref. 12382). Feeds on small benthic fishes Trachurus, Mugil, Mullus, Dicentrarchus, Spondyliosoma, Boops, Labrus, Dascyllus, Pomacentrus) and crustaceans (Ref. 10011). Females outlive males; viviparous, neonates measuring 10-14 cm at birth (Ref. 10426). 5-32 in a litter (Ref. 12951). Electrocytes start developing when the embryo weighs about 1 g; electric organs functional before birth and newborns can use their electric organ discharge (EOD) in capturing prey (Ref. 10428). Can produce electric discharges of up to 200 volts; EOD frequency up to 600 Hz. Jumps on fast-moving prey, paralyzing it with its EOD. May attain 100 cm in length (Ref. 27000).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborators

Stehmann, M. and D.L. Bürkel, 1984. Torpedinidae. p. 159-162. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2803)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.01452 - 0.02741), b=2.93 (2.84 - 3.02), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=5-32).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .