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Torpedo fuscomaculata  Peters, 1855

Black-spotted torpedo
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Torpedo fuscomaculata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Torpedo fuscomaculata (Black-spotted torpedo)
Torpedo fuscomaculata
Picture by Osmany, H.B.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Peters.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 439 m (Ref. 11228).   Tropical; - 40°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2712)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below (Ref. 5578).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: from South Africa to Zanzibar and possibly as far north as the Kenyan coast. (Ref. 83892). Possibly occurring off smaller islands in the Indian Ocean but identity of specimens uncertain and need verification (Ref. 5578).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits estuaries and intertidal zone down to 439 m (Ref. 5578). Found in sandy areas near deep rocky reefs (Ref. 2712). Feeds on fishes and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge (Ref. 5578). Young born in the summer (Ref. 5578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00778 - 0.03880), b=2.92 (2.72 - 3.12), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.75 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.