Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hilgendorf.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 25; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 34291). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 3°N - 5°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.6, range 10 - 12 cm
Max length : 17.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34290)
(total): 7. 32-54 mandibular teeth. Maxillary barbels reaching almost to the origin of the pelvic fin in some specimens and to the tip of the humeral process in others. Outer mandibular barbels with slender branches, inner pair with shorter, but slender branches. Marbled yellowish-brown (marbling is extremely variable, some individuals uniformly brown) (Ref. 34290).
Africa: Lake Victoria, Lake Nabugabo, Victoria Nile, Lake Kyoga, Kagera River, Ihema Lake, Malagarasi (Nile Basin) (Ref. 3202). Specimens from Kingani River (=Ruvu River) are misidentifications of S. orientalis (Ref. 78218).
Inhabit lakes (Ref. 4967) but appears to be more common in rivers than in lakes (Ref. 34291). Feeds on mollusks and insects (Ref. 13624). Insects, particularly chironomid larvae and Povilla, are dominant in the diet (Ref. 34291). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Rarely grows to lengths greater than 15 cm SL (Ref. 34290).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Gosse, J.-P., 1986. Mochokidae. p. 105-152. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3202)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 200).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .