Syngnathus acus  Linnaeus, 1758

Greater pipefish
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Syngnathus acus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Syngnathus acus (Greater pipefish)
Syngnathus acus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory (Ref. 88171); depth range 0 - 110 m (Ref. 4281), usually 3 - 12 m.   Subtropical; 71°N - 35°S, 19°W - 42°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - 25.6 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 33-42; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 3. Light greenish to dark brown in color with variable markings (Ref. 4281). Snout cylindrical, equal to or less than eye diameter. With 18 - 19 body rings between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 35388). The snake pipefish (Entelurus aequoreus) is distinguished by the lack of pectoral and anal fins (Ref. 88171). An elongated bump on top of head behind eye (Ref. 59043).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Faroes and British Isles to Western Sahara, Senegambia, and from Namibia to Cape of Good Hope and northward to the coast of Zululand in the western Indian Ocean (Ref. 4127). Also throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black seas. Despite literature records, occurrence in the Indo-Pacific outside South African waters lacks conclusive evidence (Ref. 4281).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal and estuarine waters to depths of at least 110 m (Ref. 4281); on sand, mud and rough bottoms. Common amongst algae and eel-grass (Zostera) (Refs. 4146, 6733, 88187). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans (Ref. 85544).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00037 (0.00023 - 0.00059), b=3.15 (3.02 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=200).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.