Synanceia verrucosa  Bloch Schneider, 1801,,

Stonefish
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Synanceia verrucosa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Synanceia verrucosa (Stonefish)
Synanceia verrucosa
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Synanceiinae
Etymology: Synanceia: Greek, syn = as a whole + Greek, aggeion = vein.   More on author: Bloch, Schneider.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range ? - 30 m (Ref. 37816).   Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 30°E - 139°W

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3503); common length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 2.4 kg (Ref. 11441)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 12 - 14; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5-7; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 5 - 6. Colors matching surroundings and extremely well-camouflaged (Ref. 48635). Pelvic and anal fins spines are similarly developed. 12-14 stout grooved spines, each with a large venom sack at its base (Ref. 37816).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Queensland, Australia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Most widespread stonefish (Ref. 4313). Found on sandy or rubble areas of reef flats and shallow lagoons and in small pools during low tide well camouflaged among the substrate and sometimes even covered with algae (Ref. 5213, 5503). Solitary species (Ref. 37816). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans. The dorsal fin has 2 grooves serving as seringes of venom; their stings are excruciatingly painful and can occasionally be fatal. A serum exists which is effective if applied immediately after the infliction. World's most venomous fish (Ref. 37816). Uncommon in markets. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Also Ref. 57406.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Poss, S.G. and K.V. Rama Rao, 1984. Scorpaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01120 (0.00513 - 0.02445), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.73 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.