Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Chabanaud.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 7 - 190 m (Ref. 36453), usually 40 - 100 m (Ref. 36453). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26268)
Southwest Atlantic: southeastern Brazil to central Argentina.
Sexual maturity of females at approximately 7 to 8 cm. Minimum depth reported from Ref. 26268.
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01507 (-0.18747 - 0.21761), b=2.93895 (2.82861 - 3.04928), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .