Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Stephanolepis: Greek, stephanos = crown + Greek, lepis = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 293 m (Ref. 5951). Subtropical; 46°N - 36°S, 98°W - 14°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36453)
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Uruguay (Ref. 47377). Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands to Angola (Ref. 3592).
Found on sand or mud bottoms. Associated with Sargassum (Ref. 26340). Adults feed on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5377). Edible but generally rejected by fishers (Ref. 5377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Monacanthidae. p. 1061-1066. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01183 - 0.02800), b=2.89 (2.76 - 3.02), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.37;).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .