Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Sprattus: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 28 - 110 m (Ref. 58489). Subtropical; 33°S - 51°S, 165°E - 180°E (Ref. 188)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23;
Vertebrae: 43 - 47. Gill cover without bony radiating striae; tooth plate on tongue narrow, pointed at each end, its width about 4 or 5 times in length, lateral teeth moderate; scales without fine striae on exposed posterior part; back green-gray when fresh. Pterotic bulla absent. Last two anal rays normal.
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
A schooling species found in coastal waters, from beaches down to 110 m or more. Has an apparently long spawning season (July to January) around the South Island, but not a fractional spawner. Eggs are present in mid-summer near Clutha River mouth (but samples may have included S. antipodum). More data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs present in mid-summer near Clutha River mouth (but samples may also have included S. antipodum).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00375 - 0.01534), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .