Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Etymology: Sprattus: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 72 m (Ref. 58489). Subtropical; 37°S - 48°S, 166°E - 180°E (Ref. 188)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 9.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23;
Vertebrae: 48 - 51. Upper jaw rounded and not notched on frontal view. Gill cover without bony radiating striae; tooth plate on tongue broad, almost oval, width about 3 times in length, lateral teeth strong; scales with fine radiating or horizontal striae on exposed posterior part; back steel blue when fresh. Pterotic bulla absent. Last two anal rays normal.
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
A schooling species in coastal waters. The biology probably resembles that of S. muelleri from which it has not usually been distinguished in earlier studies. Tends to occur in the bottom or midwater except during summer when surface shoals may appear; extends to deeper water in summer and retreats to close inshore for spawning during winter (Ref. 9258). Reported from surface (Ref. 188) to 72 m (Ref. 58489).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; bait: occasionally
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00831 (-0.15099 - 0.16761), b=3.07 (2.99 - 3.16), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .