Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Etymology: Spratelloides: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 40°N - 29°S, 29°E - 143°W (Ref. 188)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 4 - ? cm
Max length : 7.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 10 - 11. No bright silver along band flanks, maxilla toothless; pre-maxillae triangular, 2 supra-maxillae, second supra-maxilla paddle-shaped and symmetrical; vertical striae on scales meeting at center, posterior margin of scales smooth, pre-dorsal scales 8 to 13; W-shaped pelvic scute, few branchiostegal rays (6 or 7).
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Society Islands (but not the Tuamoto and Marquesan islands), north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Single specimen from eastern Mediterranean (Tel-Aviv, Israel).
Usually an inshore schooling species, inhabiting relatively clear coastal waters, lagoons, and along reef margins. Feeds near surface on plankton. Found in large schools (Ref. 9710). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Marketed fresh or dried-salted (Ref. 5213) and used as tuna baitfish.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00318 (-0.14821 - 0.15457), b=3.15833 (3.06642 - 3.25024), based on LWR estimates for species & family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=2.7-12.2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .