Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Spondyliosoma: Greek, spondylos = vertebra (1667) + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - 300 m (Ref. 3688). Subtropical; 63°N - 20°S, 26°W - 36°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
(total): 11-13. Body tall, with weak longitudinal stripes and no dark spots. Snout as long or longer than the eye diameter (Ref. 35388).
Eastern Atlantic: Scandinavia to northern Namibia (Ref. 11228), including the Strait of Gibraltar, Mediterranean and the Black Sea, Madeira, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde.
Found over seagrass beds and rocky and sandy bottoms to about 300 m (Ref. 3688). Gregarious, sometimes in large schools (Ref. 3688). Omnivorous, feeding on seaweeds and small invertebrates, especially crustaceans (Ref. 3688). Protogynic hermaphrodites (Ref. 4781). An important food fish.
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01284 (-0.01884 - 0.04451), b=3.03 (3.01 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3; Fec=36,000; tm=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .