Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Centracanthidae
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 30 - 130 m (Ref. 7349). Subtropical; 47°N - 28°N, 19°W - 42°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6518); 21.0 cm SL (female); common length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal, Morocco, and Canary Islands including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Adults are found in the neritic zone, commonly over Posidonia beds and on sand or muddy bottoms (Ref. 6518). They are distributed at depths of 30m to 90m (Ref. 56124). Feed on zooplankton. Are protogynous hermaphrodites.
Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00845 (-0.03532 - 0.05222), b=3.10530 (3.07473 - 3.13587), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24; tmax=5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .