Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 24 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 7°N -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5590)
Southeast Pacific: Peru, including the Cocos and the Galapagos islands.
Found in temperate waters (Ref. 9345). Seen in groups of 3-20 from the surface to about 24 m (Ref. 5590). Feeds mainly on fish . Large individuals may slash prey into pieces before swallowing them. The front of each jaw is toothless and there is a series of large triangular teeth along each side of both jaws (Ref. 28023).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Merlen, G., 1988. A field guide to the fishes of Galapagos. Wilmot Books, London, England 60 p. (Ref. 5590)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00334 - 0.02611), b=2.97 (2.73 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .