Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ayres.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 3 - 205 m (Ref. 9253), usually 3 - 46 m (Ref. 54903). Subtropical; 60°N - 22°N, 139°W - 104°W (Ref. 54903)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 86 - 108 cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); max. reported age: 35 years (Ref. 6147)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Eastern Pacific: southeastern Alaska to Gulf of California; Costa Rica to southern Chile.
Found on the continental shelf and littoral areas (Ref. 247).A sluggish and inactive species that buries itself in sand or mud (Ref. 247). Also found around rocks, heads of submarine canyons, and sometimes near kelp forests (Ref. 247). Feeds on bottom and epibenthic fishes, including croakers, California halibut, and squid (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Can whip up its head and snap very quickly when touched, provoked, harassed, or speared, and can inflict painful lacerations (Ref. 247).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00331 - 0.02635), b=3.02 (2.77 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.15-0.16; tm=8-13; tmax=35; Fec=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .