Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). Subtropical; 39°N - 16°S, 17°W - 60°E (Ref. 54435)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 50 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); max. published weight: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Atlantic: along the west coast of Africa to southern Angola, including the southern Mediterranean. Records from the Canary Islands and Cape Verde are unsubstantiated.
Adults are found on rocky or mud-sand bottom; juveniles have been taken in coastal lagoons and estuaries. In the west African waters, diet comprise of fishes (58%), stomatopods (21%), crabs (10%), and cephalopods (10%). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. The seasonal migration of the species off the coast of Senegal is influenced by the seasonal upwelling off Senegal and Mauritania. Utilized fresh and smoked (Ref. 9987). Highly esteemed in the market of West Africa (Ref. 5377).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00969 (-0.08102 - 0.10041), b=3.04 (2.97 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.59 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.15-0.25; tm=5-7; tmax=17; Fec>1 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .