Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 200 m (Ref. 4738). Subtropical; 45°N - 5°S, 32°W - 36°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 5.5 cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4738)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Eye very large, much greater than snout. Pectoral fin long, reaching at least origin of anal fin. Preopercular edge only slightly serrated, preopercular ridge smooth. Body and fins red or pink, back and upper surface of head dusky. Two or three dark spots, sometimes joined, along base of caudal fin.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | SELECT
scientificname = Apogon imberbis
LIMIT 1Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea: Portugal to Morocco and the Azores. Elsewhere, southward to Gulf of Guinea.
Occasionally forms schools; sometimes solitary. Inhabits muddy or rocky bottoms and caves. Feeds on small invertebrates and fishes (Ref. 4738). Oral brooding by males (Ref. 4738).
Males incubate eggs in buccal cavity (Ref. 205, 4738, 74407). Embryos do not feed externally in the buccal cavity. Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Internal fertilization and paternal care by mouthbrooding is found to be a rare combination of reproductive strategy (Ref. 74407). Also Ref. 240.
Tortonese, E., 1986. Apogonidae. p. 803-809. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4738)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00575 - 0.01908), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.56 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.90; tmax=5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .