Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Pellonula: Latin, pellis = skin + Latin, nullus = no one (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 17°N - 5°S (Ref. 26213)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 2 - 2.8 cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
soft rays: 16 - 27. Body slender to moderately deep. Scutes (17 to 23) start behind first (usually behind last) pectoral fin ray (8-15 prepelvic, 6-9 post). Lower jaw very slightly projecting, teeth at symphysis only slightly enlarged; no strongly marked indentation at center of jaw. Lower gill rakers long. Silver stripe along flank. With 36 - 45 cycloid scales of medium size on longitudinal line; 8 -15 prepelvic and 6 -9 post pelvic scutes or keels; 19 - 24 abdominal vertebrae; 10 - 12 predorsal bones. Alcohol coloration generally between yellow-brown gray with opercles, ventral region and middle of sides always lighter.
Africa: lagoons, lakes, lower and upper reaches of rivers from Senegal to Cameroon, also in lower reaches of coastal river basins from Cameroon to Democratic Republic of the Congo, upper Niger and lower Benue (Ref. 2244). Also recorded from the Cross (Ref. 2849) and the Léfini River in Republic of Congo (middle Congo River basin)(Ref. 88782).
Found chiefly in rivers and streams, but also in lakes, reservoirs and lagoons. Apparently able to enter brackish and seawater bodies. Forms schools. Mainly nocturnal. Feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects, also on ostracods, entomostracans and fish larvae (Ref. 2245). Breeds from September to July in Lake Volta.
Gourène, G. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Rèvision du genre Pellonula des eaux douces africaines (Pisces: Clupeidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(3):213-225.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00449 - 0.01117), b=2.78 (2.64 - 2.92), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .