Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 180 m (Ref. 37816), usually 10 - 70 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 31°N - 33°S, 32°E - 134°W (Ref. 55)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.9, range 39 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); common length : 76.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816); max. published weight: 12.5 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref. 72420)
soft rays: 8. Snout somewhat pointed. Dorsal profile of head rounded. Preorbital bone relatively broad; its width usually greater than eye diameter. A deep groove or pit runs from the nostrils to the front of the eye. Preopercular notch and knob moderately developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Young and some adults with two silvery-white spots on back. Large adults mostly plain red (Ref. 48635).
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. More common around oceanic islands than in continental areas.
Adults inhabit coral reefs, including sheltered lagoons and outer reefs (Ref. 30573). Usually found singly, often adjacent to steep outer reef slopes, but occasionally found in groups (Ref. 9710). Feed mainly on fishes, but also take shrimps, crabs, amphipods, stomatopods, gastropods and urochordates. Large fish from oceanic areas in the western Pacific are often ciguatoxic, e.g., in Tuvalu (Ref. 9513). Utilized fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 9987). Juveniles mimic Chromis damselfishes (Ref. 90102).
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01740 (0.01165 - 0.02599), b=3.02 (2.90 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.33; tmax=13).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .