Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Torpedinidae
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range ? - 200 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; - 31°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2712)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Large ray with a small caudal fin and with papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Bright color pattern of circles and irregular marks, cream or golden on dark red or brown to blackish background dorsally (Ref. 5578).
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea eastward to India (Ref. 2712) and southward to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 5578).
Found inshore in sandy bottoms, and well offshore from the surf zone down to 200 m (Ref. 5578). Also on or near coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Common in shallow sandy areas (Ref. 2712). Feeds on bony fishes (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Occurs singly but may form groups during the breeding season (Ref. 12951). Occasionally hooked by anglers, more often seen by divers; can deliver a strong shock (Ref. 2712). Flesh is edible (Ref. 12484). Can survive for hours after being stranded on the beach (Ref. 41394).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00778 - 0.03707), b=2.94 (2.74 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=9-22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .