Advertisement

You can sponsor this page

Betta pugnax  (Cantor, 1849)

Penang betta
Upload your photos and videos
Pictures | Google image
Image of Betta pugnax (Penang betta)
Betta pugnax
Picture by Hippocampus-Bildarchiv

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Osphronemidae (Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Betta: Siamese local name of the fish "ikan bettah".

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.1 - 7.6; dH range: 5 - 12.   Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56613)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-10; Anal spines: 1-2; Anal soft rays: 24 - 26; Vertebrae: 28 - 31. A member of the Betta pugnax species group that can be differentiated from other members by the following combination of characters: presence of chin-bar; absence of dark marks below postorbital stripe on opercle; presence of dorsal transverse bars; caudal transverse bars present only in male; greenish to bluish iridescent scales on opercle and body; red subdistal band and black edge on anal fin; absence of dark edge on caudal fin; anal fin rays 25-28 (mode 26); lateral scales 28-31 (mode 29); postdorsal scales 11-12 (mode 11); pelvic fin length 26.6-43.8% SL; head length 27.5-35.2% SL; inter-orbital width 32.4-53.0% HL (Ref. 56613).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia: Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in small fast flowing forest streams (Ref. 13061). Inhabits mainly overhanging bank vegetation, submerged leaf litter and exposed roots of bank vegetation (Ref. 13220, 56613). Mouth brooder (Ref. 13061).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Tan, H.H. and S.H. Tan, 1996. Redescription of the Malaysian fighting fish Betta pugnax (Teleostei: Belontiidae), and description of Betta pulchra, new species from Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 44(2):419-434.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Produces a minimum of 100 eggs (Ref. 1672)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.