Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Antennariidae
(Frogfishes) > Antennariinae
Etymology: Antennarius: From Latin, antenna, antemna = sensory organ (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 219 m (Ref. 9710), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 5288). Subtropical; 43°N - 50°S, 88°W - 154°W (Ref. 57378)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3585)
soft rays: 7. Color variable, often light yellow, orange, green, gray or brown with black stripes or elongate blotches, sometimes solid black. Prominent lines radiate from eye (Ref. 26938). Bone supporting illicium extends in front of upper lip (Ref. 26938). Length usually to about 20 cm, but occasionally larger in subtropical zones (Ref. 48635).
Eastern Atlantic: off the African coast, from Senegal to Southwest Africa, with a single record from St. Helena. Western Atlantic: off the coast of New Jersey (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico and throughout the island groups of the Caribbean to the southernmost coast of Brazil. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the East African coast to the Society and Hawaiian islands, north to Japan, south to Australia and New Zealand.
Inhabit rocky and coral reefs, on rocks, sand or rubble (Ref. 9710). Found in weedy estuaries along the east coast of southern Africa (Ref. 4113). In the Atlantic, it is found at an average depth of 40 m (Ref. 5288). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Observed to inflate itself greatly like the puffers (Ref. 5521). Oviparous. Males have more intense coloration and extended cutaneous appendages than females (Ref. 205). Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
Pietsch, T.W. and D.B. Grobecker, 1987. Frogfishes of the world. Systematics, zoogeography, and behavioral ecology. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 420 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 73,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .