Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 400 m (Ref. 6898). Subtropical; 4°C - 27°C (Ref. 12468); 46°N - 15°N, 105°E - 170°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9828); common length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35840); max. published weight: 1.9 kg (Ref. 82795)
Asia: Japan to the East China Sea, Taiwan, Korea, China and northern Philippines. Spawning grounds of this species are presumed to be in the western Mariana Islands, at a salinity front near 15°N and 140°E (Ref. 54488). Most expensive food fish in Japan. Introduced elsewhere.
Spawning occurs in the sea; small eels ascend the rivers in schools; develop and grow in freshwater. The species may crawl over land at night from one place to another (Ref. 5258, 11230). Feeds on crustaceans, insects and fish (Ref. 5258). Maximum weight given (1889 g) has a maximum length of 100.8 cm TL in Ref. 82795. Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; eaten steamed, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00069 (0.00040 - 0.00119), b=3.19 (3.04 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .