Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 13 m. Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 34°N - 26°S, 32°E - 130°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 33 - 35 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 244)
Indo-West Pacific: Somalia (Ref. 30573), Tanzania, Mozambique (Ref. 5213), Pakistan to Java in Indonesia; then Japan, China, and Taiwan. Reported from Australia (Ref. 4959).
Found on rocky substrates of coastal waters and lower reaches of tropical rivers (Ref. 244). It is uncertain, however, if this species can live in perfectly fresh water for extended periods (Ref. 244). Forms large schools (Ref. 244). Feeds on small bony fishes, shrimps and cuttlefish (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Common by-catch of the inshore demersal gillnet fisheries, particularly those operating off Kalimantan (Ref.58048). Utilized fresh for human consumption; processed into fishmeal and used as bait for other sharks and bony fishes (Ref. 244). Maximum sizes up to 120 cm unconfirmed (Ref. 244).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00236 - 0.00929), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.88; tm=2; tmax=6; Fec=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .