Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Osteoglossidae
Etymology: Scleropages: Greek, skleros = hard + Greek, page, -es = knot (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 24°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6398)
With 1 pair of barbels; scales large.
Asia: Southern Myanmar to Malay Peninsula and Indonesia, eastern Thailand to Cardamon Range. International trade banned (CITES I, since 1.7.75).
Occurs in tannin stained blackwater streams (Ref. 12693). Found in forest covered streams including peat adjacent areas. Take around three months for free swimming fries (Ref. 57235). Young individuals feed on insects at the water surface, adults take fishes (Ref. 12693, 57235) and smaller vertebrates (Ref. 56749). A mouth brooder, young about 6 cm at birth (Ref. 7050, 57235). Valued as an aquarium fish, its flesh commands a moderate price.
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: highly commercial
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5098 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01120 (0.00513 - 0.02445), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm = 3-4; Fec = 50 (in concrete tanks)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .