Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Sciaenops: Greek, skiaina, skion = a fish, red mullet + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 9988). Subtropical; 43°N - 0°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 86.3, range 55 - 80.3 cm
Max length : 155 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 32563)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts in USA to northern Mexico, including southern Florida, USA.
Occurs usually over sand and sandy mud bottoms in coastal waters and estuaries. Abundant in surf zone. Feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00527 - 0.01312), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27; tmax=7; Fec~1 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .