Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Sciaena: Greek, skiaina, skion = a fish, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 200 m (Ref. 9505). Subtropical; 53°N - 13°N, 19°W - 42°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 9505)
Eastern Atlantic: English Channel to Mauritania, occasionally southwards to Senegal. Also throughout the Mediterranean and Black seas. Records from Ghana (Ref. 6810) and Gabon (Ref. 5516) are questionable.
Occurs in shallow coastal waters mainly on rocky and sandy bottoms, often entering estuaries and more active at night. Also inhabits caves and reefs (Ref. 9987). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 4780). SCUBA diving observations suggest this to be a very calm fish with remarkable buoyancy control and an ability to move without much apparent effort (Ref. 9505). Marketed fresh and frozen; in Turkey, otoliths are ground to a powder and used as remedy for urinary tract infections (Ref. 9987).
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00919 - 0.02074), b=3.12 (3.00 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19; tm=3; tmax=21).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .