Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 30°N - 27°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 42001)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 5490) and east to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to Shark Bay, Western Australia and the southern Great Barrier Reef. Excluding Rapa and Austral Islands (Ref. 86689). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227).
Occurs solitary or in pairs in seaward reefs (Ref. 90102). Usually over rocky or coral substrates, at boulder-strewn slopes at the base of high-island cliffs where it may occur in large schools. Large adult usually on upper parts of deep slopes, but seen to about 35 m depth (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 30573). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). An uncommon species (Ref. 9338).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sex change occurs at 37.4 cm TL and 13 years of age (Ref. 55367).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00726 - 0.02285), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=20; K >0.30).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .