Scardinius erythrophthalmus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rudd
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Scardinius erythrophthalmus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Scardinius: A range of lofty mountains, Scardus, forming the boundary between Moesia and Macedonia.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - ? m.   Temperate; 2°C - 22°C (Ref. 27368); 62°N - 36°N, 10°W - 70°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 8.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30578); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 2.1 kg (Ref. 6258); max. reported age: 19 years (Ref. 27368)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-9; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8 - 12; Vertebrae: 36 - 39. Distinguished from its congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 39-42 scales along lateral line; anal fin with 10-13½ branched rays; 9-12 gill rakers; dorsal head profile straight or slightly convex, snout pointing forward, tip at or slightly above level of middle of eye; back not humped behind nape; eye bit close to dorsal head profile when viewed laterally; articulation of lower jaw in front of anterior margin of eye; head and body compressed, head width 13-14% SL; head length 24-28% SL; caudal peduncle depth 1.5-2.0 times in its length, 11-12% SL; and all fins with reddish hue, pelvic fin deep red (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eurasia: Most European rivers north of Pyrenees and Alps, eastward to Ural and Eya drainages, Aral and White Sea basins; Black Sea basin in Europe and northern Asia Minor. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Greece south of Pinios drainage, Great Britain north of 54 N, Ireland and Scandinavia north of 62° N (Ref. 59043). Definitely absent in Siberia. Reports from this area arose from the confusion between the rudd and the roach (Ref. 1441). Introduced to several countries. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetated lowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes. Feeds mainly on plankton, terrestrial insects and plant material. Breeds on roots or submerged plants. Can adapt to unfavorable environmental condition (Ref. 59043). Colorless or pale yellow eggs are found attached to vegetation in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Consumed fresh (Ref. 30578). Threatened due to the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest (Ref. 52336)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial; bait: usually
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00687 - 0.00919), b=3.18 (3.14 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.9   ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.09-0.18; tm=3-4; tmax=19).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.