Sarotherodon galilaeus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mango tilapia
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Sarotherodon galilaeus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Sarotherodon: Greek, saros, -ou = sawdust + Greek, ther = animal * Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - ? m (Ref. 28714).   Subtropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 2059); 35°N - 15°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 19.1, range 16 - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 81260); max. published weight: 1.6 kg (Ref. 2756)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 15 - 17; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-13; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9 - 11; Vertebrae: 28 - 30. Diagnosis: 21-25 rakers on lower limb of first arch; length of lower pharyngeal jaw < 43.5% of head length; 29-32 scales in lateral line series; head length 32.5-39% of standard length; toothed area of lower pharyngeal jaw broad > 2-3 times in keel length (Ref. 81260).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa and Eurasia: Jordan system, especially in lakes; coastal rivers of Israel; Nile system, including the delta lakes and Lake Albert and Turkana; in the Congo basin in the lower and middle Congo River from Matadi to Pool Malebo, and in the lower Kasai; in West Africa in the Senegal, Gambia, Casamance, Géba, Konkouré, Sassandra, Bandama, Comoé, Niger, Volta, Tano, Lake Bosumtwi, Mono, Ouémé, Ogun, Cross, Benue, Logone, Shari and Lake Chad; Draa (Morocco), Adrar (Mauritania); Saharian oases Borku, Ennedi and Tibesti in northern Chad; Sanaga and Nyong basins in Cameroon. Previously, five subspecies were recognized: Sarotherodon galilaeus borkuanus, Sarotherodon galilaeus boulengeri, Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus , Sarotherodon galilaeus multifasciatus, Sarotherodon galilaeus sanagaensis.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Has been known to occur at 9°C; occasionally form schools; territorial (Ref. 2). Adults prefer open waters but juveniles and breeding adults are found inshore (Ref. 4999). Often associated with beds of submerged vegetation in Sudd lakes; feed on algae and fine organic debris; bi-parental mouthbrooder (Ref. 28714). Lacks marked sexual dichromatism when sexually active; forms temporary pair bonds (Ref. 81260). Maximum size recorded at 41.0 cm TL (Ref. 2756).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | OsteoBase(skull, spine) | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01471 - 0.02585), b=3.01 (2.92 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22-0.5; tm=1.5-2; Fec > 1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.