Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Luciopercinae
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.2 - 8.0; dH range: 10 - 25. Temperate; 8°C - 22°C (Ref. 12468); 50°N - 43°N, 15°E - 40°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - 30 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 59043)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinguished uniquely from congeners in Europe by the absence of canine teeth. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: second dorsal fin with 19-21½ branched rays; 70-83 scales on lateral line; and cheek scaled (Ref. 59043).
Europe: Northern Black Sea basin from Danube (up to Vienna) to Kuban drainages; Caspian basin (Volga and Ural drainages).
Inhabits large, turbid rivers and lakes, and brackish coastal lakes and estuaries. Most active at dusk and dawn. Feeds on small fish and invertebrates. Larvae and juveniles are pelagic and feed on zooplankton. Attains first sexual maturity at 3-4 years of age and 20-30 cm SL. Spawns in April-May. May undertake short spawning migrations (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=-2.04000 (nan - nan), b=3.07 (2.87 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .