Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Rutilus: Latin, rutilus = reddish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 20 - ?. Subtropical; 10°C - 27°C (Ref. 2059); 47°N - 38°N, 7°E - 22°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 27708)
Distinguished from its congeners in Apennine Peninsula by having the following unique characters: dorsal fin with 8½ branched rays; and base of all fins red, except caudal fins. Can be further separated from other species of the genus in Apennine Peninsula by the combination of the following characters: 37-42 (usually 39-40) scales along lateral line; anal fin with 9½ branched rays; mouth subterminal; eye silvery or bronze in life; and brownish midlateral stripe from eye to caudal base, usually not very distinct (Ref. 59043).
Europe: Tyrrhenian slope from Magra to Bussento drainages, Adriatic slope from Chienti to Trigno drainages and Ofanto drainage in Italy. Introduced in southern Italy and Sicily; part of range on Adriatic slope and southernmost localities on Tyrrhenian slope possibly results from introductions.
Can colonize lakes in the absence of specialized lacustrine species (Ref. 26100). Inhabits streams with moderate current, shallow, sand or gravel bottom, and limited aquatic vegetation. Occurs in groups. Feeds on small molluscs and crustaceans, insects and algae. Spawns in clear, shallow water, on gravel and aquatic vegetation on sunny days. Attains a maximum size of about 18 cm SL (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to the introduction of other species and habitat destruction (Ref. 26100).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00634 - 0.01505), b=3.21 (3.08 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.43 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=9; K=0.12; tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .