Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays) > Rhinopterinae
Etymology: Rhinoptera: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek,pteron = fin, wing (Ref. 45335). More on author: Müller, Henle.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated. Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9862); max. published weight: 4.5 kg (Ref. 3965)
Double-lobed snout and indented forehead; jaws usually with 7 rows of plate-like teeth; no caudal fin (Ref. 5578). Brown above, white below (Ref. 5578).
Indo-West Pacific: off Durban, South Africa and ranging north possibly to India, Thailand, Indonesia, and southern China. Also in Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 637). Possibly Australia (Ref. 9862).
Found in bays, estuaries, and near coral reefs (Ref. 12951), over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 9710). Large schools with up to 500 individuals have been reported (Ref. 12951). Feeds on clams, oysters and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Lives to over 2 years in captivity (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Edible (Ref. 30573). Caught occasionally by bottom trawl, demersal inshore gillnet and tangle net fisheries. Utilized for its meat (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Males court by nipping the female's dorsum. Mating pair orient in a venter to venter position, and the male inserts one or both claspers. The pair usually rests on the substrate, with the female on top of the male. Mating lasts about 30 seconds (Ref. 12951) to 1 minute (Ref. 49562). Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Size at birth ~60 cm WD. One large pregnant female (~130 cm WD) contained a single late-term embryo 61 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Myliobatidae. p. 132-134. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3965)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .