Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays) > Rhinopterinae
Etymology: Rhinoptera: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek,pteron = fin, wing (Ref. 45335). More on author: Müller.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Common length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Median row of teeth is wider transversely to their lengths. Upper jaw has 9 series of teeth. Brown above, brownish white below. Darker towards the tips of the pectorals (Ref. 6902).
Southwest Atlantic. Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Cervigón, F. and W. Fischer, 1979. INFOPESCA. Catálogo de especies marinas de interes economico actual o potencial para América Latina. Parte 1. Atlántico centro y suroccidental. FAO/UNDP, SIC/79/1. 372 p. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 6077)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .