Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rhinobatidae
(Guitarfishes) > Rhinobatinae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 91 m (Ref. 48844), usually 1 - 13 m (Ref. 48844). Tropical; 38°N - 16°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 99 - ? cm
Max length : 119 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48844); 170.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 9.8 kg (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 9.8 kg; max. reported age: 16 years (Ref. 48844)
Broad disc is greater in length than width; a relatively smooth dorsal surface except for a single row of thorns around the eyes and extending along the back and tail; a long, pointed snout with a rounded tip; small, rounded, pebble-like teeth; a first dorsal fin that originates closer to the pelvic fin base than to the caudal fin origin; a thick tail and a moderately large caudal fin without a distinct lower lobe. Tooth count: 102-112/98-117. Spiral valve count: 8-10.
Eastern Pacific: endemic to the eastern Pacific from San Francisco, USA to the Gulf of California, and possibly to Mazatlan, Mexico (Ref. 48844).
Found on sand or mud bottoms of bays, seagrass beds, estuaries, and near rocky reefs. Nomadic and gregarious. Found singly or in aggregations (Ref. 12951). Burrows in sand during the day, feeds on crabs, worms, clams and small fishes at night (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous, with 6 to 28 pups in a litter (Ref. 48844).
Etymology: The genus comes from the Greek word rhine, meaning shark, and the Latin word batis, meaning ray, in reference to its body form being intermediate between that of a shark and a ray. The species name comes Latin, meaning produced, in reference to its pointed snout (Ref. 48844).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=7; tmax=11; K=0.1; Fec = 6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .