Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rhinobatidae
(Guitarfishes) > Rhinobatinae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 9 - 100 m. Subtropical; 42°N - 17°S, 19°W - 36°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 242 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3710); max. published weight: 49.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 0. Rostral ridges narrowly separated, nearly joining in front; anterior nasal lobe extending little if any, posterior nasal flap narrow; spiracle with two well-developed folds of about same size; thorns present around inner margin of orbits, between spiracles, on shoulders and along midline of disc and tail; upper surface brown, underside white, but usually a blackish blotch on snout mainly in juveniles (Ref. 6675).
Eastern Atlantic: northern Portugal to Angola, including the Mediterranean Sea.
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms, from shadow water to about 100 m. Slow swimming over bottom or partially buried. Feeds on invertebrates and fishes. Ovoviviparous, one or two litters per year, of 4-6 embryos.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). One or two litters per year, of 4-6 embryos (Ref. 6675).
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.70 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .