Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Lampriformes
(Velifers, tube-eyes and ribbonfishes) > Regalecidae
Etymology: Regalecus: Latin, regalis = belonging to a king (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 1000 m (Ref. 9337), usually 20 - 200 m (Ref. 4171). Subtropical; 72°N - 52°S, 180°W - 180°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 1,100 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9337); max. published weight: 272.0 kg (Ref. 6472)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 0. Head and body silver in color with blue streaks; body with blackish streaks and spots (Ref. 4171). Dorsal fins crimson in color and with 10-12 + about 400 soft rays. Pelvic fin represented by a prolonged, ribbon-like ray.
Atlantic Ocean: widely distributed, including the Mediterranean (Ref. 231). Indo-Pacific. Eastern Pacific: Topanga Beach in southern California, USA to Chile (Ref. 2850).
Oceanic and can live at great depths (Ref. 2850), but occasionally cast up on beaches (Ref. 9563). Feed on euphausiid crustaceans, small fishes and squid (Ref. 6738). Spawning occurs between July and December and larvae are encountered near the surface (Ref. 9337). Also caught with encircling nets and marketed fresh (Ref. 9337). In Guinness Book of Records as longest bony fish (Ref. 6472). Underwater footage shows them slowly swimming vertically, head up, with a stiff body, only undulating the dorsal fin, and with photophores on their appendages. The mouth can be protruded for capturing prey (RF, pers. comm. 2013).
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6875 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming tm>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .