Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335); binoculata: From the Latin 'bi' meaning two and 'oculata' meaning eyed - referring to the arrangement of pigment on the pectoral fin bases (Ref. 6885). More on author: Girard.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 3 - 800 m (Ref. 6793), usually 3 - 110 m (Ref. 2850). Temperate; 61°N - 31°N, 165°W - 117°W (Ref. 55279)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 130 - ? cm
Max length : 244 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 91.0 kg (Ref. 2850)
soft rays: 0. Dorsal fins well back on tail, small; caudal and anal fins absent; pectorals broad, attached to snout and incorporated with body; pelvic fins large, moderately concave on free margins (Ref. 6885). Posterior sides of tail with a small fleshy keel on either side (Ref. 6885).
North Pacific: Glubokaya Bay, Cape Navarin, and Stalemate Bank to Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico.
Largest skate in North America (Ref. 2850). Feed on crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 6885). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 22.8-30.5 cm long and 11.0-19.4 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41300, 41357). Pectoral fins utilized for human consumption (Ref. 2850). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten fried and baked (Ref. 9988).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Up to 7 embryos per egg case (Ref. 2850). Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .