Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
More on author: Gray.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical; 24°N - 9°S, 78°E - 117°E (Ref. 188)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 81 - 93. Body elongate, with strongly convex lower profile bearing a sharp keel of 33 to 38 scutes. Lower jaw prominent, mouth pointing obliquely upward; upper jaw short, not reaching beyond eye center. Anal fin very long, its origin well before midpoint of body. A dark spot behind gill opening.
Indo-Pacific: Indian Ocean (eastern coasts of India, possibly also coasts of Myanmar), Singapore and Java Sea (south coast of Kalimantan, also Bagan Api Api, Sumatra).
A marine species, or perhaps more commonly estuarine (e.g. Aluhaluh on the Barito River in Kalimantan, Indonesia). Feeds mainly on prawns (especially Acetes), but also on copepods. More specimens and data needed.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00831 (-0.15099 - 0.16761), b=3.07 (2.99 - 3.16), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .