Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pterogymnus: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek, gymnos = naked (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 20 - 150 m (Ref. 27121). Subtropical; 17°S - 36°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.4  range ? - 26 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3669); common length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Southeast Atlantic: Namibia (Ref. 27121) and South Africa to Beira, Mozambique (Ref. 3198).
Found in coastal waters, over soft bottoms (Ref. 27121). Forms large schools (Ref. 5213). Sold fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Conflicting descriptions of the reproductive style of this species have been reported, e.g., Ref. 34231 describe this species as being a gonochorist (Ref. 28504). After clarificatory analyses on the protogynous characteristics (Ref. 7124) of this species, gonochorism is confirmed (Ref. 103751).
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00997 - 0.02764), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.13-0.19; tm=6-7; tmax=11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .