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Pseudotolithus typus  Bleeker, 1863

Longneck croaker
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Pseudotolithus typus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Bleeker.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 2683), usually ? - 60 m (Ref. 3593).   Tropical; 35°N - 17°S, 25°W - 14°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania (Ref. 5377) to Angola, becoming scarce north of Cape Verde. Often confused with Pseudotolithus senegalensis.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 48.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4780); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits coastal waters from shoreline to about 150 m depth, over mud and sandy mud bottoms. Most abundant in waters less than 60 m at temperatures above 18°C. Juveniles and sub-adults enter estuaries and rivers. Feeds mainly on small fishes and crustaceans. Peak spawning season from late spring to early autumn in tropical West Africa (Ref. 4780).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00358 - 0.01221), b=3.06 (2.91 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22-0.29; tmax=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.