Probolodus heterostomus  Eigenmann, 1911

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Probolodus heterostomus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes (Characins) > Characidae (Characins) > Incertae sedis
Etymology: Probolodus: Greek, pro = in front o + Greek, ballo = to throw + Greek, odous = teeth.   More on author: Eigenmann.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Tropical

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 38376); 10.4 cm SL (female)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: coastal basins of southeastern Brazil.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits streams and rivers with sandy to muddy bottom. Forages during the day mingling with schools of similarly sized and looking prey types, such as tetras of the genus Astyanax, and feeds on their scales. The resemblance of this scale-eater with its habitual prey is an example of aggressive mimicry (Ref. 40388). The fish follows closely the intended prey by placing itself obliquely to its rear; strikes at prey's flank with its mouth widely open, the scales being removed during a quick bite. Removed scales are swallowed immediately and the predator resumes schooling with its prey. The fourth dentary teeth, the most important one for scale removal, is already differentiated in juveniles at 1.9 SL. The scale-eating habit may have a primarily social origin through inter-specific aggression. Besides scales, it occasionally takes insects, tiny crustaceans and plant material (Ref. 28733).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Géry, J., 1977. Characoids of the world. Neptune City ; Reigate : T.F.H. [etc.]; 672 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 23 cm.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01410 (0.00454 - 0.04377), b=3.05 (2.79 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.49 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.