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Potamotrygon hystrix  (Müller & Henle, 1841)

Porcupine river stingray
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Image of Potamotrygon hystrix (Porcupine river stingray)
Potamotrygon hystrix
Picture by Landines, M.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Potamotrygonidae (River stingrays)
Etymology: Potamotrygon: Greek, potamos = river + Greek, trygon = a sting ray (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; dH range: 10 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243).   Subtropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 12468)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27188); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 27548)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Paraná-Paraguay River basin.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in marshy zones where it is frequently found partially hidden in the sandy bottom. This behavior, associated with its perfect immobility and its capacity to undergo homochromy, makes it practically undetectable to the eye. Like all species of this family, P. hystrix has a tail which is equipped with one or more spines which fall spontaneously and are replaced 2 or 3 times a year. At a length of 4 to 6 cm, the spine is a barbed, flattened skeletal formation inserted dorsally in the middle portion of the tail. Its structure is similar to that of a tooth and appears as an ivory cone covered with enamel. The spine is coated with an extremely toxic mucus produced by the cells of the skin and inflicts very painful wounds (Ref. 27188).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.