Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Potamotrygonidae
Etymology: Potamotrygon: Greek, potamos = river + Greek, trygon = a sting ray (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; dH range: 10 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 12468)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27188); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 27548)
South America: Paraná-Paraguay River basin.
Occurs in marshy zones where it is frequently found partially hidden in the sandy bottom. This behavior, associated with its perfect immobility and its capacity to undergo homochromy, makes it practically undetectable to the eye. Like all species of this family, P. hystrix has a tail which is equipped with one or more spines which fall spontaneously and are replaced 2 or 3 times a year. At a length of 4 to 6 cm, the spine is a barbed, flattened skeletal formation inserted dorsally in the middle portion of the tail. Its structure is similar to that of a tooth and appears as an ivory cone covered with enamel. The spine is coated with an extremely toxic mucus produced by the cells of the skin and inflicts very painful wounds (Ref. 27188).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .