Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Polynemidae
Etymology: Polydactylus: Greek, poly = a lot of + greek, daktylos = finger (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 6 m (Ref. 57343). Tropical; 5°S - 28°S, 121°E - 154°E (Ref. 57343)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6390); common length : 48.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9685); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 9685); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 6390)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Body without spots nor stripes. Pectoral fin rays unbranched; 4th pectoral filament long, 40-53% of SL. Second spine of dorsal fin more robust than the rest. Posterior margin of maxilla extending considerably beyond level of posterior margin of adipose eyelid. Lower tip of 7th proximal pterygiophore of 1st dorsal fin directed backward. Lateral squamation on caudal fin unbranched (Ref. 40970).
Indo-West Pacific: southern New Guinea and northern Australia.
Found in shallow, turbid waters coastal waters, estuaries, mangrove creeks, and mangrove-lined rivers (Ref. 57343), over sandbanks and mud substrates (Ref. 6390). Usually forms loose schools, although larger fish are more often observed in pairs or singly (Ref. 6390). Feeds on prawns and fish. Protandrous hermaphrodites.
Motomura, H., 2004. Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .